Monday, February 29, 2016

Polygamy, Persecution And Power All Played Role in Nauvoo Exodus~~~~~Utah History to Go

Hal Schindler
Being burned out and shot at was nothing new to the Mormons of Nauvoo. For members of the fledgling Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, being driven from their Illinois homes in the winter of 1845-46 was but the latest in a series of what they considered religious persecutions. They had been expelled from Jackson County, Missouri, by their neighbors in 1833; another group was rousted from Kirtland, Ohio, in 1838; and more were forced by an armed militia from Caldwell County, Missouri, in 1839. The faithful followed Joseph Smith Jr., their prophet and leader, to refuge in Commerce, Hancock County, Illinois, a peninsula settlement on the banks of the Mississippi.
In six years of back-wrenching toil--first draining the vile swamps that infested the area, then clearing brush and timber to make the land fit for settling by families in the town site they would rename Nauvoo--the Saints had built more than a thousand log cabins, nearly 300 solid brick houses and as many or more frame homes. Nauvoo was thriving in 1844 when trouble once more came baying like a wolf pack.
This time there was murder in the air. A mob bent on the assassination of the Mormon prophet and his older brother Hyrum attacked them in Carthage Jail as they awaited trial on charges of committing a riot. They were accused of breaking into the Nauvoo Expositor and unlawfully burning and pieing its type. The Expositorwas a newspaper fiercely critical of Joseph Smith. The mob members believed that with the Smiths "out of the way," their church would crumble, its power and influence disintegrate and its members panic and scatter. And Joseph Smith's death, they were convinced, would crush once and for all "that damnable doctrine" of the plurality of wives--polygamy.
In truth, the Carthage assassinations on June 27, 1844, did divide the church, but they also erupted into a furious war between Mormons and anti-Mormons that raged sporadically for more than a year before the Saints' final expulsion from the state. It was a violent end to what had been a promising, even cordial beginning with Illinois, which faced public bankruptcy in 1839. The state recognized in the Mormon migration from Missouri an opportunity to welcome as many as 40,000 new residents to its tax rolls.
From this accommodation emerged the somewhat mysterious figure of John Cook Bennett, a physician and quartermaster general of Illinois. He was an ambitious and unscrupulous rogue who saw opportunity in becoming a confidant of Joseph Smith. In a lengthy correspondence with Smith, Bennett pleaded, "Wealth is no material object with me. I desire to be happy, and am fully satisfied that I can enjoy myself better with your people...than with any other. I hope the time will soon come when your people will become my people, and your God my God."
He would have shared Smith's persecutions in Missouri, Bennett insisted, "had not the conflict terminated so speedily. I should have been with you then. God be thanked for your rescue from the hand of a savage, but cowardly foe!" When Bennett made his appearance in Nauvoo in August 1840, he was baptized, and by October was Smith's lobbyist to the Illinois Legislature, where he cultivated figures like Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln, two of its most powerful members. By dangling the prize of a solid Mormon-voting bloc before the legislators, Bennett was able to obtain a charter creating the City of Nauvoo, with its accompanying benefits. He exulted in writing Smith, "Illinois has acquitted herself with honor...Every power we asked has been granted, every request gratified, every desire fulfilled."
The Legislature unwittingly had placed into Mormon control an instrument that would rise to haunt it. While the charter essentially copied the Springfield City Charter, it did have some innovations. It permitted, for example, a city council, including a mayor, four aldermen and nine councilmen, empowered to pass any ordinance not in conflict with state or federal constitutions. The mayor and aldermen constituted the Municipal Court, having the power of justices of the peace and the right to issue writs of habeas corpus in all cases involving city ordinances.
The charter also allowed a militia, thus opening the way for the Nauvoo Legion, which "shall be at disposal of the mayor in executing the laws and ordinances of the city corporation...and shall be entitled to their proportion of the public arms." And so in one fell swoop, in an effort to curry favor with the Mormons, the Legislature had placed in Joseph Smith's hands the legal and military power with which to create a secular dictatorship without rival in any other city in America.
It was no wonder Bennett was exuberant, and he was well rewarded for his efforts on behalf of the church. In the first municipal election in February 1841, he was named mayor of Nauvoo; Joseph and Hyrum Smith and Sidney Rigdon were elected councilmen. In the subsequent organization of the Nauvoo Legion, Joseph Smith took the rank of lieutenant general. To that time, the only other military leader to hold such a high rank had been George Washington.
The editor of the Sangamo Journal published a lengthy editorial critical of the Legislature and Smith's status as the highest-ranking military officer in America. The editor correctly pointed out that if war came, Smith would command the nation's armies, because Winfield Scott held a subordinate rank of major general. But the ability to issue writs of habeas corpus would prove to be even a mightier weapon in the Mormon arsenal. Nauvoo was to become a safe haven with justice-of-the-peace courts and probate courts issuing such writs to free arrested people regardless of the jurisdiction in which they were arrested.
The net result, Robert Bruce Flanders wrote in Nauvoo Kingdom on the Mississippi, was "not only to help protect the Mormons from legal persecution, real or imagined, but also to make 'outside' law enforceable in Nauvoo only if the city government concurred." And that aroused the opposition of the gentiles around the city. When elections rolled around in 1842, Smith used the opportunity to further strengthen the Mormon position in politics. He had himself appointed city recorder with William Clayton, one of his scribes, as deputy. That gave him control of registry of deeds, but put Nauvoo at loggerheads with Hancock County recorders, who refused to recognize deeds registered only in the city.
There were yet other problems to contend with; during the spring of '42, word circulated that Smith had predicted the impending demise of Lilburn W. Boggs, former governor of Missouri and the man who had ordered that state's militia to "exterminate" the Mormons. The prophet was quoted as saying Boggs "will die by violent hands within a year." Not too long afterward, Orrin Porter Rockwell, Smith's distant cousin and close friend, noticeably was absent from Nauvoo. On May 6, 1842, an assassin outside the Boggs home shot through a window, striking the man in the back of the head as he sat reading in his living room. Miraculously, Boggs survived four large buckshot wounds, two in the brain and two in the neck.
By the first of August, a warrant for Rockwell charging him with attempted murder was issued, and, on March 4, 1843, he was arrested in St. Louis and jailed. In Nauvoo, affairs were beginning to unravel at an alarming pace. The rogue Bennett resigned his office as mayor because, as Smith confided to his journal, "[Bennett's] whoredoms and abominations were fast coming to light."
Smith assumed the duties of mayor. Bennett, humiliated and publicly disgraced, set out to destroy him. He wrote a series of letters for publication in theSangamon Journal exposing Smith "and his secret doctrine of spiritual wifery, among other things." He also claimed Smith had sent Rockwell to kill Boggs, and that after the shooting the Mormon prophet had said "The Destroying Angel" had done the work "as I predicted." From that day forward, Rockwell bore the sobriquet "Destroying Angel."
Smith and Rockwell had been arrested--Rockwell for assault with intent to kill, and Smith for being an accessory "before the fact." When two deputies took them in custody, Smith obtained writs of habeas corpus and the deputies reluctantly turned over their prisoners to the Nauvoo city marshal. The two men were released as soon as the deputies were out of sight. The warrant for Smith was set aside as "nebulous" by a circuit judge.
Back in St. Louis, Rockwell was ordered to trial. He escaped jail once and was recaptured. A Missouri jury found him guilty, but because of his long confinement awaiting trial, he was sentenced only to "five minutes in the County Jail." After nine months on the run and in Missouri dungeons, he was free to return to Nauvoo. For some time there had been a widening breach between Joseph Smith and William Law, a member of the church's First Presidency, primarily over Law's wife. Rumors had reached Law that Smith had tried to persuade her to become his spiritual wife. And so the seeds of discontent spread through the city, with Law and his brother Wilson, Chauncey and Francis Higbee, Robert D. Foster and Joseph H. Jackson at the center of intrigue against Smith and his followers.
Jackson was an adventurer and notorious scoundrel; the Laws, Higbees and Foster, however, were wealthy and influential in Hancock County. They broke away to organize their own reformed church. From this clique grew the idea for the creation of a newspaper to attack the Smiths. And so was born the Nauvoo Expositor. It was intended to be a sounding board for their opposition views and tear away the secrecy surrounding the plurality of wives being taught by the church's hierarchy. But it lasted only one issue, for Smith moved swiftly to crush the dissidents. In doing so he unleashed a whirlwind and sealed his doom.
Seven years earlier, Illinois had been torn by the murder of an abolitionist editor and Presbyterian minister named Elijah Lovejoy, who set up a newspaper in Alton, Illinois, to fight for anti-slavery. His press twice was attacked by a mob and in the second assault Lovejoy was shot to death. The incident made Illinois the object of national scorn, and the state still was smarting under criticism when the Expositor affair occurred. Smith's City Council passed a libel law and then charged the Expositor with being a public nuisance. In the next breath, Smith ordered the city marshal to abate the nuisance--"destroy the press and pi the type." But even Smith was unprepared for the uproar that followed. Freedom of the press once more had been trammeled in Illinois, and the residents would have none of it.
The Expositor editors swore out complaints and found enthusiastic backing from another enemy of the Smiths--Thomas Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal, who editorialized in blind fury: Citizens arise, one and all!!! Can you stand by, and suffer such infernal devils! To rob men of their property rights, without avenging them. We have no time for comment! Everyman will make his own. Let it be with powder and ball.
Joseph and Hyrum thought of leaving Nauvoo and making tracks for the Rocky Mountains, but halfway across the Mississippi, Joseph was persuaded to return to surrender at Carthage and face trial. Governor Thomas Ford interceded to calm the Smiths' apprehension regarding their safety and promised protection while they were in Carthage Jail. There were strong questions concerning Ford's role in what was to transpire, with some Mormons suggesting that the chief executive was connected with the assassination plot, for he left Carthage for Nauvoo after promising he would stay.
In any case, the Carthage Greys, a militia company, was assigned to guard the jail, but with an armed mob painted and howling, as one writer put it, "like demons vomited from hell," the militia detachment commanded by Lt. Frank Worrell offered only token resistance and stepped aside, allowing the attackers to gain the second floor where the Smiths, John Taylor and Willard Richards were sequestered.
After a brief struggle--during which Joseph Smith, who had armed himself with a smuggled pepperbox revolver, reached around the doorjamb and fired all six chambers--Hyrum fired through the door and was struck in the face by a mobber's bullet. He was hit by three more shots and died. Joseph leaped to the window, where he became an excellent target for those outside as well as the intruders on the stairway. Two shots from the doorway struck him in the back; a third, fired from the ground outside, penetrated his chest. "O Lord. My God!" he screamed, and plunged to earth.
In the melee, John Taylor, armed only with a cane, swung it wildly, fracturing gun hands as they forced the door. But the attackers burst through and Taylor was shot--in the thigh, in the chest (the bullet was stopped by his pocket watch), in the left forearm and in the left knee. The floor of the cell literally was awash with the blood of the three Mormons. Richards, bleeding from a bullet nick on the left ear lobe, had been forgotten by the mob almost at the instant he thought himself a dead man.
Once Joseph Smith had fallen from the second-story window, the mob began to disperse. Someone shouted, "The Mormons are coming!" and the milling crowd fled in panic. But no Mormons came. Richards went for help for the wounded Taylor. (They survived to make the trek West.)
In the ensuing months, the question of church leadership was resolved when Brigham Young, president of the LDS Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, prevailed over Sidney Rigdon to become president of the church. Young immediately set about consolidating the faithful by pledging to finish the Nauvoo Temple, so that members could receive their churchly "endowments." And within six months he was toying with the notion of an exodus that would take the Saints beyond the Rockies, perhaps as far as Oregon or California. But a power struggle continued among the church leaders, until finally Young threw Rigdon "off his shoulders," and by September 1844 Rigdon was--declared an apostate.
In the three months since the Smith killings, the anti-Mormons had remained reasonably subdued, waiting to judge the response of the Saints. When the Mormons failed to abandon Nauvoo, the "anti's" sought to hasten the process. Soon there came reports of "wolf hunts" and house-burnings by roving marauders out to intimidate Mormon settlers. Young ordered out the Nauvoo Legion, and the Illinois Legislature responded by revoking the precious Nauvoo Charter, thus dismantling the Legion and voiding the right by municipal courts to issue habeas corpus writs. In a single stroke, the Legislature had emasculated the Mormons.
By mid-May 1845, members of the Carthage mob were brought to trial, and one of the key witnesses for the defense was Lt. Worrell, who had charge of the militia's guard detachment the day of the assassinations. Worrell refused to answer whether rifles carried by the Greys that day had been loaded with blanks. After a dozen days of testimony, the defendants were acquitted. Soon after, the house-burners stepped up their terror and night-riding became a popular pastime as Mormon battled anti-Mormon. A Mormon-elected county sheriff, Jacob Backenstos, set out to capture the marauders, until he himself became their target.
On one occasion, a small party of riders began chasing Backenstos on the road to Warsaw. The sheriff whipped his carriage to a nearby railroad siding where several Saints were watering their horses. Recognizing two of them as Porter Rockwell and Return Jackson Redden, Backenstos sputtered his predicament and quickly deputized the men. "Don't worry," Rockwell said, "we've got our pistols and two rifles." Backenstos shouted to his pursuers to halt as they came galloping on. Rockwell took a bead on the lead rider, who, it later was said, was reaching for a pistol. A slug from Rockwell's rifle took him just above the belt buckle and fairly catapulted him from the saddle. Frank Worrell died before his companions could get him to Warsaw. Backenstos and Rockwell later would be tried for the shooting. Both were acquitted.
The house-burnings increased to the point of leaving an ashen trail of Mormon homes from one end of Hancock County to the other, until Governor Ford stepped in to negotiate a truce. The Mormons promised to abandon the county by the next spring. So began the expulsion of the church from the City of Joseph in February 1846. Work to complete the temple was a top priority and droves of church members were receiving their endowments in ceremonies around the clock.
Mormons sacrificed their homes for hard cash. Some, like John D. Lee, who refused to be stampeded, turned down absurdly low offers. But, ultimately, he was a loser. His home of twenty-seven rooms, which cost $8,000 to build (and which would have been worth $50,000 in Salt Lake City), was turned over to a church committee to be sold to help the poor join the westward trek. "I was afterwards informed they had sold the house for $12.50!"
Twelve thousand wagons were constructed for the journey ahead, and by May some 16,000 Mormons had crossed the Mississippi and taken up their line of march westward. They left behind perhaps a thousand of their fellow Saints who thought to stick it out. But a posse of some 600 anti-Mormons moved on Nauvoo, and in a furious engagement lasting little more than an hour September 12, 1846, with the defenders, involving cannon fire and rifles, three Mormons and one non-Mormon were killed. The Mormons capitulated and subsequently abandoned Nauvoo and joined the exodus to Winter Quarters at Council Bluffs, Iowa.

Sunday, February 28, 2016

Did You Remember This Is "Leap Year"?

Who Invented Leap Years?

Roman general Julius Caesar introduced the first leap years over 2000 years ago. But the Julian calendar had only one rule: any year evenly divisible by four would be a leap year.

This formula produced way too many leap years, but was not corrected until the introduction of the Gregorian calendar more than 1500 years later.
Folk traditions

Roman general Julius Caesar introduced the first leap years over 2000 years ago. But the Julian calendar had only one rule: any year evenly divisible by four would be a leap year.
This formula produced way too many leap years, but was not corrected until the introduction of the Gregorian calendar more than 1500 years later. ]

The following comes from Wikipedia:

A spinster eagerly awaits the upcoming leap day, in this 1903 cartoon by Bob Satterfield.

In Ireland and Britain, it is a tradition that women may propose marriage only in leap years. While it has been claimed that the tradition was initiated by Saint Patrick orBrigid of Kildare in 5th century Ireland, this is dubious, as the tradition has not been attested before the 19th century.[14] Supposedly, a 1288 law by Queen Margaret of Scotland (then age five and living in Norway), required that fines be levied if a marriage proposal was refused by the man; compensation was deemed to be a pair of leather gloves, a single rose, £1 and a kiss.[15] In some places the tradition was tightened to restricting female proposals to the modern leap day, February 29, or to the medieval (bissextile) leap day, February 24.

According to Felten: "A play from the turn of the 17th century, 'The Maydes Metamorphosis,' has it that 'this is leape year/women wear breeches.' A few hundred years later, breeches wouldn't do at all: Women looking to take advantage of their opportunity to pitch woo were expected to wear a scarlet petticoat—fair warning, if you will."[16]

In Finland, the tradition is that if a man refuses a woman's proposal on leap day, he should buy her the fabrics for a skirt.[17]

In France, since 1980, a satirical newspaper entitled La Bougie du Sapeur is published only on leap year, on February 29.

In Greece, marriage in a leap year is considered unlucky.[18] One in five engaged couples in Greece will plan to avoid getting married in a leap year.[19]

In February 1988 the town of Anthony in Texas, declared itself "leap year capital of the world", and an international leapling birthday club was started.[20]

In the United States, February 29 is often referred to as "Sadie Hawkins Day" signifying a gender role reversal, such as a day when a woman proposes marriage to a man.

1908 postcards 

Woman capturing man with butterfly-net. 

Women anxiously awaiting January 1 

Histrionically preparing 


A person born on February 29 may be called a "leapling" or a "leaper".[21] In common years, they usually celebrate their birthdays on February 28. In some situations, March 1 is used as the birthday in a non-leap year, since it is the day following February 28.

Technically, a leapling will have fewer birthday anniversaries than their age in years. This phenomenon is exploited when a person claims to be only a quarter of their actual age, by counting their leap-year birthday anniversaries only. In Gilbert and Sullivan's 1879 comic opera The Pirates of Penzance, Frederic the pirate apprentice discovers that he is bound to serve the pirates until his 21st birthday (that is, when he turns 84 years old), rather than until his 21st year.

For legal purposes, legal birthdays depend on how local laws count time intervals.

Saturday, February 27, 2016

Grandpa George

George W. Johansen

8/11/1941 ~ 2/26/2016
JohansenGeorgeGeorge Wilford Johansen, 74, passed away February 26, 2016 at his home in Mt. Pleasant, Utah. He was born August 11, 1941 to Dean Niels Johansen and Evelyne Jane Whitman. George married Barbara Ann Graff on April 10, 1965 in Parowan, Utah. They were later sealed for time and all eternity in the LDS Manti Temple.
George worked hard his entire life. He started and ran two successful businesses and a farm. Through those business ventures his children and countless others learned the value of an honest day’s work and its rewards. George always assumed you could perform any given task or find any given location without much direction – we all learned to problem solve on the fly. He was a self-proclaimed doctor and a connoisseur of convenience store fare. George was active in his church and community. He served as a Stake President, a Bishop, a member of the High Council, a counselor in the Single Adult Ward and as a Primary Teacher. He served as a City Councilman and a member of the Planning and Zoning Committee. He had a strong belief that hard work and a backhoe could fix any physical ailment or home repair. He doted on his wife, kids, grandkids and his cows and made sure that all were home and safe each night. He loved living in Sanpete County and could only live without Sanpete County air and water for short periods of time. He was a magnificent teacher, by example. He taught us that music in the car isn’t just there for background noise. It needs to be sung out loud with hand gestures. That if someone is in need you jump in and help – no questions asked. That everyone is a child of God and deserves to be treated as such – God will judge later. Forgive and forget no matter how hurtful another person is being. George was a man with a body and a heart bigger than the average man. He will be missed but his influence will never be gone. He was a wonderful husband, father and grandfather. He loved unconditionally and that instilled a sense of safety and security that allowed all of us to grow and become who we are today.
George was preceded in death by his parents Dean and Evelyne Johansen. He is survived by his wife Barbara Ann Johansen of Mt. Pleasant, his five children: Cindy Lynn Johansen of Mt. Pleasant, Christy C. Johansen of Mt. Pleasant, Dean George (Laura) Johansen of Providence, John Graff Johansen of Mt. Pleasant and Karen Ann (Clint) Sorensen of Heber, his seven grandchildren: Duncan George Johansen, Dawson Peter Johansen, Beckham Dean Johansen, Roman John Johansen, Wrigley Clint Sorensen, Reese Ann Sorensen and Atticus Cole Sorensen, his siblings: Alden (Martha) Johansen and Rodger (Jenni) Johansen.
Funeral services will be held Thursday, March 3, 2016 at 11:00 a.m. at the Mt. Pleasant North Stake Center. Friends may call Wednesday evening, March 2 from 6-8 p.m. or March 3 from 9:30-10:30 at the Stake Center. Interment will be in the Mt. Pleasant City Cemetery. Online Condolence

Friday, February 26, 2016

Pioneer Day  ~  Mt. Pleasant Homecoming Day

Saturday, March 19th
Theme:  Honoring Our Military
Past Present and Future

Held at the Mt. Pleasant North Stake Center
461 North 300 West

Doors will open at 10:00 a.m.

Box Lunch will be served at 12:00 noon

Program following Lunch 

The Relic Home will be open after the Program

Thursday, February 18, 2016

Chautauqua ~ Mt. Pleasant Pyramid June 1, 1917

What Is Chautauqua?  Wikipedia 
Chautauqua (/ʃəˈtɔːkwə/ shə-taw-kwə) describes an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Named after Chautauqua Lake, in Western New York where the first was held, Chautauqua assemblies expanded and spread throughout rural America until the mid-1920s. A Chautauqua Assembly brought entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers, teachers, musicians, entertainers, preachers and specialists of the day.[1] Former US PresidentTheodore Roosevelt was quoted as saying that Chautauqua is "the most American thing in America".[2]

Sunday, February 14, 2016

Origins of Valentines Day

William Shakespeare helped romanticize Valentine's Day in his work, and it gained popularity throughout Britain and the rest of Europe.

Shakespeare In Love
The Dark Origins Of
Valentine's Day

Updated February 13, 201411:42 AM ETPublished February 13, 20118:36 AM ET


Arnie Seipel

Valentine's Day is a time to celebrate romance and love and kissy-face fealty. But the origins of this festival of candy and cupids are actually dark, bloody — and a bit muddled.


A drawing depicts the death of St. Valentine — one of them, anyway. The Romans executed two men by that name on Feb. 14 of different years in the 3rd century A.D.

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Though no one has pinpointed the exact origin of the holiday, one good place to start is ancient Rome, where men hit on women by, well, hitting them.

Those Wild And Crazy Romans

From Feb. 13 to 15, the Romans celebrated the feast of Lupercalia. The men sacrificed a goat and a dog, then whipped women with the hides of the animals they had just slain.

The Roman romantics "were drunk. They were naked," says Noel Lenski, a historian at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Young women would actually line up for the men to hit them, Lenski says. They believed this would make them fertile.

The brutal fete included a matchmaking lottery, in which young men drew the names of women from a jar. The couple would then be, um, coupled up for the duration of the festival — or longer, if the match was right.

The ancient Romans may also be responsible for the name of our modern day of love. Emperor Claudius II executed two men — both named Valentine — on Feb. 14 of different years in the 3rd century A.D. Their martyrdom was honored by the Catholic Church with the celebration of St. Valentine's Day.

Later, Pope Gelasius I muddled things in the 5th century by combining St. Valentine's Day with Lupercalia to expel the pagan rituals. But the festival was more of a theatrical interpretation of what it had once been. Lenski adds, "It was a little more of a drunken revel, but the Christians put clothes back on it. That didn't stop it from being a day of fertility and love."

Around the same time, the Normans celebrated Galatin's Day. Galatin meant "lover of women." That was likely confused with St. Valentine's Day at some point, in part because they sound alike.


William Shakespeare helped romanticize Valentine's Day in his work, and it gained popularity throughout Britain and the rest of Europe.

Perry-Castañeda Library, University of Texas

Shakespeare In Love

As the years went on, the holiday grew sweeter. Chaucer and Shakespeare romanticized it in their work, and it gained popularity throughout Britain and the rest of Europe. Handmade paper cards became the tokens-du-jour in the Middle Ages.

Eventually, the tradition made its way to the New World. The industrial revolution ushered in factory-made cards in the 19th century. And in 1913, Hallmark Cards of Kansas City, Mo., began mass producing valentines. February has not been the same since.

Today, the holiday is big business: According to market research firm IBIS World, Valentine's Day sales reached $17.6 billion last year; this year's sales are expected to total $18.6 billion.

But that commercialization has spoiled the day for many. Helen Fisher, a sociologist at Rutgers University, says we have only ourselves to blame.

"This isn't a command performance," she says. "If people didn't want to buy Hallmark cards, they would not be bought, and Hallmark would go out of business."

And so the celebration of Valentine's Day goes on, in varied ways. Many will break the bank buying jewelry and flowers for their beloveds. Others will celebrate in a SAD (that's Single Awareness Day) way, dining alone and binging on self-gifted chocolates. A few may even be spending this day the same way the early Romans did. But let's not go there.

Genealogy Quote

"In all of us there is a hunger, marrow-deep, to know our heritage - to know who we are and where we have come from."

~Alex Haley

L.D.S. Temple

L.D.S. Temple
Manti Temple